The largest North American landbird, which soars on an astonishing nine and a half foot wingspan, is truly a spectacular sight to behold. And yet, the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) hasn’t graced Oregon skies in over a century. Although condors are incredibly well adapted to a scavenging lifestyle, exposure to lead nearly led to their extinction.
The critically endangered condor—known as Prey-go-neesh to the Yurok Tribe—once numbered in the thousands and ranged from British Columbia to Baja, Mexico. By 1982, the condor was nearly extinct. The wild population was down to 22 free-flying birds when the last of the wild condors were brought into captivity to initiate a captive breeding program. Since then, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service’s condor breeding and release program has dramatically improved the outlook for this magnificent bird. Today there are over 465 birds in the population, over half of which are free-flying.
History of Recovery and Threats to the California Condor
While significant progress has been made to increase their numbers, the story of the condor continues to illustrate the catastrophic impact that lead exposure can have on wildlife, particularly for those with a slow reproduction rate. Condors are long-lived birds that don’t reach sexual maturity for six to eight years, lay only one egg per nesting cycle, and may only breed every other year.
As vultures that feed only carrion, Condors often scavenge caracasses and gut piles left in the field by hunters. Lead ammunition can contaminate a carcass with a comet trail of lead dust and particles that can spread as far as 17 inches from the wound channel. Ingestion of that lead is lethal to a California Condor, as well as to Bald and Golden Eagles, hawks, ravens, and other scavengers. Research shows a seasonal spike in blood lead levels in scavenger birds that is correlated with hunting season.
Today there is a collective effort to raise awareness about the impacts of lead toxicity on scavenging birds, and to encourage hunters to switch to use of non-lead ammunition, which shows excellent ballistic performance.
Plans are underway to reintroduce condors to the Bald Hills of Redwood National Park in Northern California. The Yurok Tribe, together with the National Park Service and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, has spent nearly a decade planning for the return of this culturally and ecologically significant species to Yurok Ancestral Territory. This exciting news portends the return of California Condors to Oregon skies, and challenges us to ensure adequate protection of condors from lead in Oregon.
Portland Audubon’s Work to Protect the California Condor
- Tracking Yurok Tribe and National Park Service efforts to develop a Condor release facility in Redwood National Park
- Advocating for strong protections for the Redwood National Park population of California Condors
- Supporting education and awareness-raising about the impacts of lead on scavenging birds to help reduce wildlife exposure to lead
- Report preparation and ongoing research on the impact of lead contamination in Hawks, Eagles, Turkey Vultures and Common Ravens in Oregon